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U.s.-China Nuclear Cooperation Agreement

Some in Congress have expressed concern about the technology transfer agreement, but the AP1000 technology transfer is now in full swing. Westinghouse`s first four reactors are under construction and another 32 are planned, and Chinese companies will take over an increasing share of the work. According to Baker Donelson, Westinghouse`s technology transfer agreement for the AP1000 reactor only grants the Chinese a “non-exclusive license to use this technology in China,” with westinghouse retaining all of its intellectual property rights. The deal allows the Chinese to change the AP1000 design, but they can`t export such variants “unless they do so with Westinghouse as part of a marketing alliance.” In fact, some analysts say it would not be necessary for China to use spent fuel for plutonium weapons. Mark Hibbs, an analyst at Carnegie Endowment, writes: “Since 1964, China has been a nuclear-weapon state with stockpiles of weapons-grade plutonium and uranium manufactured in specific Chinese military reactors and reprocessing facilities. China is highly unlikely to violate a bilateral agreement with the United States to divert civilian nuclear material committed by the United States to manufacture future nuclear weapons. 44 This weapons plutonium was manufactured by two reactors: the oldest was shut down in 1984 and the second is believed to have produced plutonium until 1991455 In January 1983, US officials negotiating a nuclear cooperation agreement with China linked possible US nuclear exports to China with its declared nuclear proliferation practices, Notably in Pakistan.69 Before an agreement was reached, Senators Gordon Humphre, William Roth, and William Proxmire wrote to Secretary of State George Shultz in December 1983. They insisted that an agreement be reached so that none of the provisions of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 be repealed. They also wrote that the agreement should contain explicit commitments by China not to provide nuclear equipment or information to any nation; support the U.S. commitment that beneficiaries must accept international atomic energy agency (IAEA) security measures for nuclear exports; and to conclude an agreement with the IAEA to secure China`s civilian nuclear activities in the same security as the safeguards agreement between the United States and the IAEA. The PRC announced in December 2014 that it would spend about $11.2 billion a year on reactor construction over the next ten years, representing a vast potential market for nuclear equipment suppliers around the world.15 The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) is the largest U.S. company. The nuclear industry trade association called the “timely renewal” of U.S.

nuclear cooperation agreements with China and other countries “crucial for the continuation of nuclear exchanges between U.S. companies and companies in those countries.” 16 On the eve of the Us-China summit in October 1997, the PRC continued its nuclear non-proliferation policy by adopting, on 16 97 between President Reagan`s presentation of the current Agreement 123 to Congress in July 1985 and its implementation in March 1998 under President Clinton. . . .