March 3, 2006: Bush and Singh issue a joint statement on their growing strategic partnership, in which they stress their agreement on civil nuclear cooperation. 13 September 2008: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs publishes a brochure on the nuclear agreement which states that this initiative will help meet India`s growing energy demand and strengthen the non-proliferation regime by introducing New Delhi into world-renowned non-proliferation standards and practices. Pakistan has not secured a similar nuclear energy deal from Washington. Some experts argue that this obvious American preference over India could increase nuclear rivalry between highly competitive nations and possibly increase tensions in the already dangerous region. “I have the impression that [the Pakistanis] are concerned that this is feeding India`s nuclear weapons program and thus weakening deterrence,” Blackwill said. Other experts say that the two countries, both nuclear, admittedly, may be forced to be more cautious towards each other. Pakistan is already a proliferation risk: the illegal nuclear network of Pakistani nuclear scientist A.Q. Khan, revealed in 2004, shocked the world with its daring trafficking of nuclear technology. Some experts fear that the agreement between the United States and India could encourage Pakistan to go elsewhere on similar terms, for example in China. 04.10.2008: Foreign Minister Rice visits Delhi. India and the United States are not in a position to conclude the nuclear agreement with New Delhi and insist that they will not do so until President Bush enshrines it in a law, an opportunity where he expects some concerns to be lifted. Nuclear materials, equipment and components transferred in accordance with this agreement, as well as nuclear materials and derived materials used or produced in nuclear materials, equipment and nuclear materials or components thus transferred, may not be used by the recipient party for nuclear explosive devices, for the research or development of a nuclear nuclear device or for military purposes.
Nevertheless, the Manmohan Singh government was allowed to go through the various stages of the negotiation process over a two-and-a-half-year period. But when the text of Agreement 123 was finalized in July 2007, the left`s resistance grew stronger and the government was put under pressure not to continue the agreement. Left-wing parties and the UPA government formed a forum in August to examine the issues in the nuclear agreement.